Капилляриоз птиц

Tissue niche and morphology

The tissue niche of this parasite is the liver. The adult females will deposit eggs in the parenchyma of the liver. Occasionally in humans larvae will migrate to the lungs, kidneys and other organs.

Adult worms take the shape of a slender nematode, with the anterior part of the body narrow and the posterior part gradually swelling. The females measure about 53–78mm x 0.11–0.20mm, but the males are approximately 24–37mm x 0.07–0.10mm. The adult worms are rarely seen intact, as they mature and die in the parenchyma of the liver. The adult females lay eggs that are about 48-66μm x 28-36μm. The shell of the eggs is striated with shallow polar prominences at either end. Numerous mini-pores can be seen in the outer shell as well. Unembryonated eggs may be ingested by a carnivore, in which case they are harmless and pass out in the feces. Eggs will embryonate in the environment, where they require air and damp soil to become infective. Under optimal conditions this takes about 30 days. Larvae are juvenile versions of the adult worm.

Diagnosis and treatment

Diagnosis is made by finding eggs or adults of C. hepatica in liver tissue from biopsy or Necropsy samples. The encapsulated eggs and adults may appear as white nodules which measure 2–3mm in diameter on the surface and interior of the liver at autopsy. Key identification features of this parasite are a striated shell and shallow polar prominences of the egg and a narrowing at anterior end and gradual swelling at posterior end of the adult worm. Identification of C. hepatica eggs in the stool does not result from infection of the human host, but from ingestion by that host of livers from infected animals, the eggs will then pass out harmlessly in the feces. Most cases have been determined after death because clinical symptoms resemble those of numerous liver disorders.

Successful treatment of human cases with thiabendazole or albendazole (with or without corticosteroids) have been reported. Albendazole must be taken with food because a fatty meal will increase the Bioavailability of the drug.

Two ways of preventing C. hepatica infections in humans would be to institute effective rodent control programs and preventing dogs and cats from eating rodents.

Diagnosis and treatmentedit

Diagnosis is made by finding eggs or adults of C. hepatica in liver tissue from biopsy or Necropsy samples. The encapsulated eggs and adults may appear as white nodules which measure 2–3mm in diameter on the surface and interior of the liver at autopsy. Key identification features of this parasite are a striated shell and shallow polar prominences of the egg and a narrowing at anterior end and gradual swelling at posterior end of the adult worm. Identification of C. hepatica eggs in the stool does not result from infection of the human host, but from ingestion by that host of livers from infected animals, the eggs will then pass out harmlessly in the feces. Most cases have been determined after death because clinical symptoms resemble those of numerous liver disorders.

Successful treatment of human cases with thiabendazole or albendazole (with or without corticosteroids) have been reported. Albendazole must be taken with food because a fatty meal will increase the Bioavailability of the drug.

Two ways of preventing C. hepatica infections in humans would be to institute effective rodent control programs and preventing dogs and cats from eating rodents.

Life cycle

Hosts ingest C. hepatica eggs (from sources outlined below) which hatch into first stage larvae (L1). The L1 larvae bore through the intestinal wall and are carried to the liver by the hepatic portal vein. Development from the L1 stage to sexually mature adults occurs in the liver within 18–21 days. Eggs are laid in the liver parenchyma of the host throughout the adult worm’s life span, which lasts for about 30–40 days. Up to 938,000 eggs have been reported from the liver of a single rodent host.

The eggs in the liver exist in a state of arrested development – they are unable to develop into larvae until they spend some time outside of the host, in the environment. Escaping from the liver tissue may be accomplished either by the death and decomposition of the host’s body, or by the consumption and digestion of the host by a predator or scavenger. If the host is eaten, the eggs will pass into the environment in the feces of the predator or scavenger. In the environment, eggs require 4–5 weeks to develop, and may remain viable in a dormant state for several more months. Once these «environmentally-conditioned» eggs are eaten by a suitable host, the first stage larvae (L1) hatch in the intestine and continue the life cycle. Humans are usually infected after ingesting embryonated eggs in fecal-contaminated food, water, or soil.

Parasitic cycle, as given by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Diagnosis and treatment

In human cases, symptoms of hepatic capillariasis include
abdominal pain with fever and chills, hepatitis (liver inflammation), ascites (excess fluid in the
peritoneal cavity), hepatolithiasis (gallstones in the bile
ducts), and hepatomegaly (enlarged liver). Diagnosis
is made by finding eggs or adults of C. hepatica in liver
biopsy samples. The encapsulated eggs and adults may appear as
white nodules which measure 2–3 mm in diameter on the surface
and interior of the liver at autopsy.

Successful treatment of human cases with thiabendazole or albendazole (with or
without corticosteroids) have
been reported.

Близкие по смыслу слова и выражения

Слово Синонимы
болезнь
абазия, абсцесс, абулия,…
расстройство
аграфия, атаксия, атрепсия,…
сальпингоофорит
аднексит, воспаление,…
лейкоз
алейкемия, белокровие,…
талассемия
анемия, гемоглобинопатия,…
крапивница
бабочка, болезнь,…
авитаминоз
бери-бери, болезнь,…
немощь
бессилие, болезненность,…
немочь
бессилие, болезнь,…
эктима
болезнь, дерматит,…
хворость
болезнь, дохлость,…
аскаридоз
болезнь, заболевание
коклюш
болезнь, заболевание
невросклероз
болезнь, заболевание
плазмоцитома
болезнь, заболевание
хворь
болезнь, заболевание,…
хвороба
болезнь, заболевание,…
нездоровье
болезнь, заболевание,…
недуг
болезнь, заболевание,…
недомогание
болезнь, заболевание,…
молочница
болезнь, заболевание,…
синусит
воспаление, гайморит,…
тендовагинит
воспаление, заболевание
эритродермия
воспаление, заболевание
миокардит
воспаление, заболевание,…
филяриатоз
вухерериоз, заболевание,…
описторхоз
гельминтоз, заболевание,…
миопатия
дистрофия, заболевание
ришта
дракункулез, заболевание,…
абортивность
заболевание
авителлиноз
заболевание
анкилостомидоз
заболевание
антропоноз
заболевание
артрогрипоз
заболевание
артроз
заболевание
бабезиоз
заболевание
базедовизм
заболевание
бильгарциоз
заболевание
герпес
заболевание
гидронефроз
заболевание
дисцит
заболевание
иерсиниоз
заболевание
клебсиеллез
заболевание
клонорхоз
заболевание
колибактериоз
заболевание
коринебактериоз
заболевание
ксеродерма
заболевание
лимфоретикулез
заболевание
лингватулез
заболевание
мадуромикоз
заболевание
макроспориоз
заболевание
мастопатия
заболевание
мелиоидоз
заболевание
метсатронгилез
заболевание
миотония
заболевание
мононуклеоз
заболевание
нанофиетоз
заболевание
нейродермит
заболевание
неориккетсиоз
заболевание
онихомикоз
заболевание
орз
заболевание
остеодисплазия
заболевание
остеодистрофия
заболевание
остеохондроз
заболевание
остеохондропатия
заболевание
панмиелофтиз
заболевание
паравакцина
заболевание
парагонимоз
заболевание
парагрипп
заболевание
паракоклюш
заболевание
периартериит
заболевание
плексит
заболевание
профзаболевание
заболевание
ринофима
заболевание
руброфития
заболевание
саркоидоз
заболевание
сирингомиелия
заболевание
спондилез
заболевание
спондилоартроз
заболевание
тейлериоз
заболевание
токсикоинфекция
заболевание
токсоплазмоз
заболевание
трихиаз
заболевание
трихоспория
заболевание
флебосклероз
заболевание
флюороз
заболевание
фрамбезия
заболевание
хромомикоз
заболевание
цуцугамуши
заболевание
эндометриоз
заболевание
энцефалопатия
заболевание
эризипелоид
заболевание
эритразма
заболевание
эритробластоз
заболевание
эхинококкоз
заболевание
ятрогения
заболевание
стрептодермия
заболевание, импетиго,…
сальмонеллез
заболевание, инфекция
эндемия
заболевание, инфекция
силикатоз
заболевание, каолиноз,…

Hosts and distribution

Adults are often found in dozens of rodent species, but also occur in a wide variety of other wild and domestic mammals, and occasionally humans.C. hepatica has been found in temperate and tropical zones on every continent and infestation rates of wild-caught rats of up to 100% have been reported.

Usually, Capillaria hepatica is found in rodents, monkeys and other animals. Capillaria hepatica is rarely found in humans and at least 40 cases have been reported. There are no endemic areas of infection with C. hepatica and human infection primarily results from transmission.

Of the human infections, most have been found in children under the age of 5.

Pathogenesis and survival in host

In humans C. hepatica causes Hepatic capillariasis, a serious liver disorder. The Nematode wanders through the host liver causing loss of liver cells and thereby loss of function. However, as the adult C. hepatica begin to die in the liver tissue, their decomposition accelerates the immune response of the host. This response leads to chronic inflammation and Encapsulation of the dead worms in collagen fibers, and eventually to septal fibrosis (abnormal connective tissue growth) and cirrhosis of the liver. This leaves the eggs behind and they can become encased by Granulomatous tissue, with large sections of the Parenchyma becoming replaced by these egg masses.Capillaria hepatica can also cause Hepatomegaly. Infections of C. hepatica can present with several clinical symptoms including, abdominal pain in the liver area, weight loss, decreased appetite, fever and chills, hepatitis (liver inflammation), ascites (excess fluid in the peritoneal cavity) and hepatolithiasis (gallstones in the bile ducts).

This parasite can be fatal in humans, as transmission and survival of the parasite depend on death of the Definitive host in order for the eggs to reach soil and water to embryonate.

Diagnosis and treatment

Diagnosis is made by finding eggs or adults of C. hepatica in liver tissue from biopsy or samples. The encapsulated eggs and adults may appear as white nodules which measure 2–3mm in diameter on the surface and interior of the liver at . Key identification features of this parasite are a striated shell and shallow polar prominences of the egg and a narrowing at anterior end and gradual swelling at posterior end of the adult worm. Identification of C. hepatica eggs in the stool does not result from infection of the human host, but from ingestion by that host of livers from infected animals, the eggs will then pass out harmlessly in the feces. Most cases have been determined after death because clinical symptoms resemble those of numerous liver disorders.

Successful treatment of human cases with or (with or without ) have been reported. Albendazole must be taken with food because a fatty meal will increase the of the drug.

Two ways of preventing C. hepatica infections in humans would be to institute effective rodent control programs and preventing dogs and cats from eating rodents.

References

  1. ^
  2. Bancroft, T. L. (1893). «On the whip worm of the rat’s liver». Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales. 27: 86–90.
  3. Moravec, F (1982). «Proposal of a new systematic arrangement of nematodes of the family Capillariidae». Folia Parasitologica. 29 (2): 119–32. PMID .
  4. Claveria, FG; Causapin, J; De Guzman, MA; Toledo, MG; Salibay, C (2005). «Parasite biodiversity in Rattus spp caught in wet markets». The Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health. 36 Suppl 4: 146–8. PMID .
  5. ^ Roberts, Larry S (2009). Foundations of Parasitology. McGraw Hill Higher Education.
  6. ^
  7. ^
  8. ^

Дагностика, лкування та профлактика

У разі кишкового капіляріозу, необхідно вивчити зразки калу, щоб виявити в них личинки капиллярий та їх яєць. Також може проводитися біопсія кишечника.

Щоб діагностувати печінковий капилляриоз робиться біопсія органу. Але точної впевненості в тому, що при заборі був узятий необхідний шматок органу, немає.

Якщо уражені легені, тоді необхідна експертиза змивів і мокротиння з дихальних шляхів. Ще може знадобиться проведення біопсії легенів.

Капилляриоз лікується Мебендазолом та його аналогами, такими як Альбендазол та Тіабендазол. Тривалість терапії та дози антигельмінтного засобу визначаються лікарем, виходячи з маси тіла, ваги хворого та ступеня інвазії.

Паралельно проводиться симптоматична терапія. З цією метою призначаються жарознижувальні препарати і засоби, що попереджають зневоднення організму, відновлюють клітинний склад і підтримують концентрацію електролітів у крові.

Профілактичні заходи полягають у дотриманні особистої гігієни:

  • тривала термічна обробка сирої риби;
  • миття сирих овочів, ягід і фруктів перед вживанням;
  • ретельне миття обробних поверхонь після обробки риби та м’яса;
  • зміна одягу після роботи з ґрунтом.

Дотримання цих правил не тільки знизить ризик виникнення капіляріозу, але і ехінококозу печінки та токсоплазмозу під час вагітності. Так, незважаючи на те, що капиллярии найчастіше виявляються в екзотичних країнах, з ознаками цього виду гельмінтозу і профілактикою його появи повинен ознайомитися кожен. Особливо це стосується часто подорожуючих людей. Відео до цієї статті продемонструє, як виглядають нематоди роду капиллярии.

Diagnosis and treatment

Diagnosis is made by finding eggs or adults of C. hepatica in liver tissue from biopsy or Necropsy samples. The encapsulated eggs and adults may appear as white nodules which measure 2–3mm in diameter on the surface and interior of the liver at autopsy. Key identification features of this parasite are a striated shell and shallow polar prominences of the egg and a narrowing at anterior end and gradual swelling at posterior end of the adult worm. Identification of C. hepatica eggs in the stool does not result from infection of the human host, but from ingestion by that host of livers from infected animals, the eggs will then pass out harmlessly in the feces. Most cases have been determined after death because clinical symptoms resemble those of numerous liver disorders.

Successful treatment of human cases with thiabendazole or albendazole (with or without corticosteroids) have been reported. Albendazole must be taken with food because a fatty meal will increase the Bioavailability of the drug.

Two ways of preventing C. hepatica infections in humans would be to institute effective rodent control programs and preventing dogs and cats from eating rodents.

Diagnosis and treatment

In human cases, symptoms of hepatic capillariasis include abdominal pain with fever and chills, hepatitis (liver inflammation), ascites (excess fluid in the peritoneal cavity), hepatolithiasis (gallstones in the bile ducts), and hepatomegaly (enlarged liver). Diagnosis is made by finding eggs or adults of C. hepatica in liver biopsy samples. The encapsulated eggs and adults may appear as white nodules which measure 2–3 mm in diameter on the surface and interior of the liver at autopsy.

Successful treatment of human cases with thiabendazole or albendazole (with or without corticosteroids) have been reported.

Tissue niche and morphologyedit

The tissue niche of this parasite is the liver. The adult females will deposit eggs in the parenchyma of the liver. Occasionally in humans larvae will migrate to the lungs, kidneys and other organs.

Adult worms take the shape of a slender nematode, with the anterior part of the body narrow and the posterior part gradually swelling. The females measure about 53–78mm x 0.11–0.20mm, but the males are approximately 24–37mm x 0.07–0.10mm. The adult worms are rarely seen intact, as they mature and die in the parenchyma of the liver. The adult females lay eggs that are about 48-66μm x 28-36μm. The shell of the eggs is striated with shallow polar prominences at either end. Numerous mini-pores can be seen in the outer shell as well. Unembryonated eggs may be ingested by a carnivore, in which case they are harmless and pass out in the feces. Eggs will embryonate in the environment, where they require air and damp soil to become infective. Under optimal conditions this takes about 30 days. Larvae are juvenile versions of the adult worm.

References

  1. Claveria, FG; Causapin; De Guzman;
    Toledo; Salibay (2005). «Parasite biodiversity in Rattus spp caught
    in wet markets». The Southeast Asian journal of tropical
    medicine and public health 36 Suppl 4: 146–8.
    PMID .

  2. Reperant, Leslie A.; Deplazes, Peter
    (2005). «Cluster of Capillaria hepatica infections in
    non-commensal rodents from the canton of Geneva, Switzerland».
    Parasitology research 96 (5): 340–2. doi:. PMID .

  3. Singleton, GR; Chambers (1996). «A
    manipulative field experiment to examine the effect of Capillaria
    hepatica (Nematoda) on wild mouse populations in southern
    Australia». International journal for parasitology
    26 (4): 383–98. PMID .

Lifecycle

Hosts ingest C. hepaticum eggs (from sources outlined
below) which hatch into first stage larvae (L1). The L1 larvae bore
through the intestinal wall and are carried to the liver by the hepatic
portal vein. Development from the L1 stage to sexually mature
adults occurs in the liver within 18–21 days. Eggs are laid in the
liver parenchyma of
the host throughout the adult worm’s life span, which lasts for
about 30–40 days. Up to 938,000 eggs have been reported from the
liver of a single rodent host.

As the adult C. hepaticum begin to die in the liver
tissue, their decomposition accelerates the immune response of the
host. This
response leads to chronic inflammation and encapsulation of the dead
worms in collagen fibers,
and eventually to septal fibrosis (abnormal connective tissue growth)
and cirrhosis of the
liver.

Meanwhile, the eggs in the liver exist in a state of arrested
development – they are unable to develop into larvae until
they spend some time outside of the host, in the environment.
Escaping from the liver tissue may be accomplished either by the
death and decomposition of the host’s body, or by the consumption
and digestion of the host by a predator or scavenger. If the host is eaten, the eggs
will pass into the environment in the feces of the predator or
scavenger. In the environment, eggs require 4–5 weeks to develop,
and may remain viable in a dormant state for several more
months. Once
these «environmentally-conditioned» eggs are eaten by a suitable
host, the first stage larvae (L1) hatch in the intestine and
continue the life cycle.

Paleoparasitology

Capillaria hepatica eggs from the corpse of an adolescent from the late Roman period in France

The first paleoparasitological record of human hepatic capillariasis was published in 2014. Two calcified objects recovered from a 3rd to 4th-century grave of an adolescent in Amiens (Northern France) were identified as probable hydatid cysts. By using thin-section petrographic techniques, probable Capillaria hepatica eggs were identified in the wall of the cysts. The authors claimed that hepatic capillariasis could be expected given the poor level of environmental hygiene prevalent in this period. Identification of tissue-dwelling parasites such as C. hepatica in archaeological remains is particularly dependent on preservation conditions and taphonomic changes and should be interpreted with caution due to morphological similarities with Trichuris sp. eggs.

Как происходит заражение разными видами паразитов, вызывающих капилляриоз

C. hepatica

C. hepatica часто встречается в печени животных, например, мелких грызунов, обезьян и луговых собачек. Внутри дохлых крыс часто можно обнаружить червей вида Capillaria hepatica. Паразит вызывает цирроз печени у животных-хозяев. Когда этих животных поедают более крупные хищники, яйца капиллярид попадают внутрь организма и выходят из него с каловыми массами. Далее фекалии находятся в почве, и в течение 30 дней являются заразными для других животных и человека. После того, как случайным образом яйца паразитов попадают в человеческий организм, они мигрируют в печень, где и вырастают до размеров взрослых червей. Другой путь передачи — через разложения инфицированных животных, в том числе и печени, когда при гниении останков паразит просто остается в почве в активной форме.

C. philippinensis (кишечный капилляриоз) не передается от человека к человеку и требует промежуточного хозяина — пресноводных рыб. Capillaria philippinensis паразитирует также на птицах, питающихся речной и морской рыбой. Когда люди поедают сырую или зараженную рыбу, личинки мигрируют в кишечник и остаются там, пока не оформятся во взрослых червей. Женские особи откладывают яйца в кишечнике, эти яйца так же выделяются с фекалиями. Когда инфицированная фекалия человека достигает пресноводного источника, личинки попадают в воду, где их могут проглатывать рыбы. Таким образом, цикл продолжается. Некоторые яйца развиваются прямо в кишечнике, приводя к появлению большого количества червей и гиперинфекции.

На территории Филиппин регулярно обнаруживаются случаи заражения Capillaria philippinensis, отсюда и название червя. Иногда случаи заражения фиксируются в Таиланде, Колумбии, на Ближнем Востоке и в странах Азии. Время от времени спорадические вспышки фиксируются по всему миру.

Capillaria aerophila (легочный капилляриоз) может передаться при случайном вдыхании яйца паразита, а также при контакте с больным животным или поцелуе с больным человеком. Представителя вида Capillaria aerophila нередко находят в бронхах и легких у различных мелких диких млекопитающих (полевых мышей, тушканчиков, луговых собачек, мартышек и т.д.). Из организма человека яйца могут выходить либо с каловыми массами, либо в момент кашля и рвоты.

Life cycleedit

Hosts ingest C. hepatica eggs (from sources outlined below) which hatch into first stage larvae (L1). The L1 larvae bore through the intestinal wall and are carried to the liver by the hepatic portal vein. Development from the L1 stage to sexually mature adults occurs in the liver within 18–21 days. Eggs are laid in the liver parenchyma of the host throughout the adult worm’s life span, which lasts for about 30–40 days. Up to 938,000 eggs have been reported from the liver of a single rodent host.

The eggs in the liver exist in a state of arrested development – they are unable to develop into larvae until they spend some time outside of the host, in the environment. Escaping from the liver tissue may be accomplished either by the death and decomposition of the host’s body, or by the consumption and digestion of the host by a predator or scavenger. If the host is eaten, the eggs will pass into the environment in the feces of the predator or scavenger. In the environment, eggs require 4–5 weeks to develop, and may remain viable in a dormant state for several more months. Once these «environmentally-conditioned» eggs are eaten by a suitable host, the first stage larvae (L1) hatch in the intestine and continue the life cycle. Humans are usually infected after ingesting embryonated eggs in fecal-contaminated food, water, or soil.

Parasitic cycle, as given by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Hosts and distribution

Adults are often found in dozens of rodent species, but also occur in a wide variety of other wild and domestic mammals, and occasionally humans.C. hepatica has been found in temperate and tropical zones on every continent and infestation rates of wild-caught rats of up to 100% have been reported.

Usually, Capillaria hepatica is found in rodents, monkeys and other animals. Capillaria hepatica is rarely found in humans and at least 40 cases have been reported. There are no endemic areas of infection with C. hepatica and human infection primarily results from Zoonotic transmission.

Of the human infections, most have been found in children under the age of 5.

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Боли в голове от Вермокса
ОтвеченоЕвгения спросил (-а) 3 года назад
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